Earth’s Magnetic Field Protects Us from Solar Sneezes

first_imgby Dr Henry RichterAudio Playerhttps://crev.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/CEH-31-7-17-HenryRichter.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume.CME ‘sneeze’ takes aim at Earth. Credit: SOHO/NASAA recent article about an attribute of the Van Allen Belts and how they operate strikes me as another prime example of how the Earth and its environment are designed to allow and protect life. Every now and then, the sun sends a large coronal mass ejection (CME) toward the Earth. This is a lot of dangerously destructive plasma which is a hazard to life and to electronic devices and systems. If the CME reached an unprotected Earth, it would cause widespread damage. The article on Phys.org, “Sun eruptions hit Earth like a Sneeze‘, say scientists,” describes what would happen without protection by our magnetic field.CMEs are huge blasts of solar plasma and magnetic fields from the sun’s atmosphere that can reach Earth in one to three days. A direct hit could have catastrophic consequences, as CMEs are capable of damaging satellites, destroying electronic devices and potentially exposing people at high altitude, such as astronauts and aviation crew and passengers, to cancer-causing radiation. They occur frequently, but predicting which ones will impact Earth and how severely is difficult.Thankfully, the Earth glides through space in a bubble called the magnetosphere which deflects moving plasma and charged particles so that they rarely reach the surface of the Earth. Some are captured by the field lines and end up as radiation in the Van Allen belts. [See 11/09/14, “Star Trek for Real,” about how the Van Allen Belts create an impenetrable force field that prevents high-energy electrons from reaching the Earth.] New research by scientists at the University of Reading was published in Nature Scientific Reports. The ‘sneeze’ analogy appears related to this finding about CMEs:Comparing our results with observed properties of over 400 CMEs, we show that CMEs cease to be coherent magnetohydrodynamic structures within 0.3 AU of the Sun. This suggests Earth-directed CMEs are less like billiard balls and more like dust clouds, with apparent coherence only due to similar initial conditions and quasi homogeneity of the medium through which they travel.The Van Allen belts have a special interest to me, having played a small role in the discovery of the belts. I played a role in choosing Dr. James Van Allen’s cosmic ray Geiger counter instrument to fly in the first Explorer satellites [see 9/20/16]. We had no inkling of the possibility of particles or radiation being trapped in the earth’s magnetic field. During the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year (IGY), I was mainly interested in getting a world-wide picture of the incidence of cosmic rays, especially over a range of magnetic field conditions. As a matter of fact, we at JPL had an IGY-approved cosmic ray experiment which we were developing on our own. However, when Sputnik jolted us awake in 1957, and the Navy Vanguard test rocket blew up on the pad, the Department of Defense approved the final design and launch of the Explorer series. We did not have a flight ready JPL instrument, but Dr. Van Allen did, and he was clever enough to have designed the bolt holes to fit either the Vanguard satellite or the Explorer satellite. So when it came time to finalize the payload, as manager of instruments for the program, I had no choice but to recommend and choose the Van Allen package.Dr Richter at 50th Anniversary of Explorer 1 (2008) holding up model of the instrument package he designed that included the Geiger counter.It took some time to recognize the existence of the radiation belts. The first satellite, Explorer 1 (January 31, 1958), had a simple telemetry system so we only got data when it was within range of the dozen or so tracking stations. We were puzzled early on as occasionally we got no counts from the Geiger tube detector, and this was worrisome because we did not know what was wrong. I think Dr. Van Allen had an early inkling of what was going on as the missing data periods seemed to happen in a few geographic regions. It was not until we orbited Explorer 3 on March 26 (which had a data tape recorder – giving us the full orbit) that it became really clear that the Geiger tube ran into a region of increasing counts, until it saturated and stopped giving data. The Russians had missed this because Sputnik 3, which had a cosmic ray instrument, only recorded data when it was near the Russian ground stations. Those were under the orbit at its lower points, and therefore below the radiation belts.A direct hit could have catastrophic consequencesNow, almost 60 years later, as we learn more about the wonders of this phenomenal earth on which we ride, we find that the existence of the trapping and shielding effect of the earth’s magnetic field is just one of a myriad of features that allow life to exist and flourish here. Our Creator had to put many, many things in place to make the Earth open to support life, and in particular advanced life. It is awe inspiring to have a small glimpse into why we can exist, and to marvel at it all. Thank goodness for the creation of the Van Allen belts.We are honored to introduce Dr Henry Richter as a contributor to Creation-Evolution Headlines. A key player at NASA/JPL in the early days of the American space program, Dr Richter (PhD in Chemistry, Physics and Electrical Engineering from Caltech) brings a perspective about science with the wisdom of years of personal involvement. His book America’s Leap Into Space: My Time at JPL and the First Explorer Satellites (2015), chronicles the beginnings of the space program based on his own records and careful research into rare NASA documents, providing unequaled glimpses into events and personnel in the early days of rocketry that only an insider can give. His next book, Spacecraft Earth: A Guide for Passengers, is due out later in 2017. For more about Dr Richter, see his Author Profile.5th Anniversary of Explorer 1 at JPL (1963): L to R, James Van Allen, Jack Froelich, Henry Richter, Bill Pickering, Al Hibbs, John Small, Homer Joe Stewart, Bob Stevens, Walt Downhower, Casey Mohl, and Carl Linnes.(Visited 627 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

La ferrovia Fantasma – The ghost railway

first_img SharePrint RelatedLost – DHARMA Initiative — Geocache of the WeekMay 30, 2018In “Community”Mission 9 is alive!August 29, 2017In “Community”Chraxli’s mini Wonderland — Geocache of the WeekMay 16, 2018In “Community” “La ferrovia Fantasma – The ghost railway” is a two stage Multi-Cache that takes you through a rare abandoned spiral railroad tunnel. One of very few in the world, the spiral tunnel corkscrews vertically through the earth 360° as an innovative way (at the time) to bring the trains to higher grounds.  Located in the beautiful region of San Marino, GC350VD has a blend of intrigue and adventure with an interesting reward at the final coordinates.Stage 1:You’re standing in front of the mouth of a dark train tunnel. It can be assumed the next step would be to enter it. Before you turn on your flashlight and head into the abyss, take a moment to examine the marble plaque near the entrance. The plaque contains clues you’ll need to solve the puzzle from the cache page and reveal the final coordinates for the cache. Getting to them is the hard part.Pre tunnel checklist:Do you have a good pair of walking shoes? YesDo you have a flashlight or headlamp? YesDo you suffer from a fear of long tunnels? NoPerfect, you’re good to go!Stage 2 (Final):Barafonda warns that the walk to the final is roughly one hour. The tunnel is long, dark, and at one point spirals upward 360° (if you feel like you’re going around in a circle, it’s because you are).Making it through the tunnel reveals a wide panorama of rolling hills, castles, red roof tops, and a lonely blue rail car along the tracks sitting atop a bridge. The train car serves as a memorial for what once was a working railroad. Somewhere in or around the train lies the cache and logbook.What geocachers have to say:We managed to solve this one from home and verified our solution once we got to San Marino. We kept seeing the final location from the lookouts on top of the mountain. What a beautiful place this is. Thanks for taking us to these unique locations. Grabbed a couple of travel bugs which we’ll move along as we go. – Cedar & Co.Coming from Bologna on my way to Elba I made my way over San Marino. This was my gift to myself for my 6th geocaching anniversary tomorrow on 15-May-2016. I like to collect countries and San Marino is now country # 33 within 6 years of geocaching. Location:San MarinoN 43° 58.079′ E 012° 28.816′ “When a train goes through a tunnel and it gets dark, you don’t throw away the ticket and jump off, you sit still and trust the engineer.” –Corrie ten BoomWell, there’s no train in this tunnel, but you can trust the cache owner Barafonda’s waypoints to get you through the end. Their advice for when the tunnel gets dark: turn on your flashlight or head lamp, “…and trust the engineer.” The theme of the cache and the final location I like very much, especially the very scenic view in the Titan and the three castles. The cache was an easy find and after taking a lot of photographs I continued my way to Elba. –Carolix200 favorite points have been awarded to GC350VD over it’s 6 year lifespan, making it San Marino’s most favorited cache.Continue to explore some of the most amazing geocaches around the world.Check out all of the Geocaches of the Week on the Geocaching blog. If you would like to nominate a Geocache of the Week, fill out this form.Share with your Friends:More Difficulty:2Terrain:1.5 Multi-CacheGC350VD by Barafondalast_img read more

My iPhone Supports Gay Marriage. Does Yours?

first_imgRelated Posts Values Equal ProfitsThere does not yet exist a robust analog for finding and supporting businesses I want to promote because of their values, and not simply their price, location or customer service. Why is that? In today’s connected world – when anyone can get anything from anywhere, and always at the best price – values can become a core differentiator.I don’t want my money going to a business that is opposed to gay marriage. Perhaps that’s exactly what you do want. Why not incorporate a “values” layer into Foursquare, for example and discover and share those businesses that have the very best lattes – and the strongest support for the values most important to me.Foursquare users, for example, can “discover and learn about great places nearby, search for what you’re craving, and get deals and tips along the way.” The app’s 30 million users have checked in to various establishments more than 3 billion times. Consider the potential social good Foursquare could foster if values were made into a searchable variable. The Trust IssueCan people be trusted to not list a business as, say, homophobic, just because they were angry over the price or a long line to check out? Is it possible to know if a business legitimately supports climate-change improvements, for example, or is really working to limit poverty? It may be hard for a business to lie about its prices but all too easy to claim social and political stances that it doesn’t back up with actions. brian s hall Why not an app that alerts me to a store’s values as I walk inside? Or that alerts me to a product whose maker I want to support? For example, when I stare at that massive beer selection in the grocery store, perhaps my “values app” can remind me that Bud Light used social media to support gay marriage.Plenty of apps and sites focus on a specific value or set of values, or utilize a top-down approach, where those who create the app set the rankings. This is a good start, but does not fully empower smartphone user to personally rate businesses by the values that matter to them. For example, the Good Guide site rates an array of products that are “healthy, green and socially responsible.” While useful, the information covers only selected products and is rated by a “team of scientific and technology experts,” not actual users.The FishPhone app offers a similar service and provides the seafood ratings system for Whole Foods. Of course, Whole Foods’ CEO was famously opposed to Obamacare. The app would never tell me that. This is a critical problem with single-focus and those not maintained not by the end users. For example, Ceres, “a network of over 130 investment funds, environmental organizations, unions and interest groups” promotes major companies that are making significant progress on sustainability goals. Ford was a recent winner. That’s great, unless you believe that a large automobile manufacturer should never be included on a list of sustainability leaders.Getting Comfortable With Controversial TopicsThe issue preventing a user-driven values based shopping app is not a technical one. The larger issue is that too many of us are not yet comfortable with the very idea of values-based recommendations.When it comes to choosing goods and services, we have spent our whole lives focused on price, quality and convenience. Values are fuzzy, harder to quantify – and can lead to difficult decisions. What if your friendly, neighborhood grocer, for example, turns out be a climate change denier – and you live in area prone to flooding? Once you learn the values of a business and determine you are in opposition, would you continue to shop there? Will supporting only businesses whose values align with yours merely serve to divide society instead of promoting the values in question?The technology to make this possible already exists, so it’s likely we’ll have the answers soon enough.iPhone image courtesy of Apple. Fortunately, with more than a hundred million smartphones in use in America – more than 1 billion worldwide – the aggregate numbers and big data “smoothing” of billions of values-based check-ins and reviews should mitigate any lies or mistakes. For example, Amazon product reviews can generally be relied upon as a valid barometer of popular sentiment, even though they’re completely subjective.A few websites already provide a limited form of “values-based” recommendations for businesses. For example, OutGrade, launched earlier this year, lets users “rate places by gay friendliness or homophobia.” Users rate establishments on a scale from -5 to +5, and the site color codes businesses based on their overall score: red is homophobic, green is ” gay friendly.” The OutGrade site accepts ratings for any business: restaurant, dentist office, pub, hotel, etc. and in three months has garnered reviews on more than 3,500 businesses. OutGrade plans to release a mobile app “in the coming weeks.” This is vital as it allows users to simply pull out their smartphones and find acceptable places in their immediate vicinity. While a website may offer a more robust experience, only an app can provide real-time location-based ratings and reviews, while boosting the reliability of recommendations by letting users initiate reviews on the spot.One More Step A Comprehensive Guide to a Content Audit If I can recommend a great local restaurant, leave a review for future patrons, alert my followers on Twitter, update my Facebook friends on my great new find – all in a few seconds – using only Yelp and my iPhone, why can’t I similarly promote those businesses whose values I support?Why is it so easy to tell thousands of people, literally, how awful a coffee shop’s service is, for example, but I can’t as easily steer people away from a store whose values I deplore? It seems to me there should be an app – or maybe lots of apps – that make it easy for me to find, check-in, rate, review and recommend those businesses whose values align with mine. Forget pet friendly – are they gay friendly, Earth friendly? Do they seek a massive reduction in the size of government, do they refuse to buy from China, will they never cross a union picket line and can I count on them to support a strong national defense?With the Yelp app, for example, I can easily set various parameters for a restaurant search: proximity, price range, type of food and customer ranking. But values is not one of the choices. This seems like a rather significant gap within the mobile-social-local nexus.  The Dos and Don’ts of Brand Awareness Videos Tags:#Android#Apple#apps#iPhone#mobile#social networks Facebook is Becoming Less Personal and More Pro… Guide to Performing Bulk Email Verificationlast_img read more

Cignal sinks Marinerong Pilipino for 1-0 lead in D-League semis

first_imgPBA IMAGESCignal HD derailed Marinerong Pilipino’s dream voyage with an 86-67 rout Thursday to gain a 1-0 lead in their 2017 PBA D-League Foundation Cup semifinals series Thursday at Ynares Sports Arena in Pasig.Possibly playing his final game before leaving for the 2017 Southeast Asian Games, Raymar Jose imposed his presence and uncorked 17 points and eight rebounds off the bench to lead his side to the win.ADVERTISEMENT Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo “I’m really thankful for Raymar. I had to play him for the whole of the third quarter and he did his job for us,” said coach Boyet Fernandez.Jason Perkins provided the stability for the Hawkeyes as he scattered 13 markers, 18 boards, three assists, one steal, and one block, Byron Villarias had 13 points, four rebounds, and three dimes, and Oping Sumalinog got 12 markers and four boards as the Hawkeyes starters jumped to an early 34-14 first quarter lead and never looked back.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool stars“I’m really happy that the starters stepped up on defense. We’re pressured enough to play at our best today given the fact that we haven’t played for a long while. But credit to my boys again. They really played their hearts out today,” said Fernandez.Showing no rust from their three-week layoff, Cignal controlled the tempo of the game and even led by high as 24, 62-38, at the 2:54 mark of the third quarter. CIGNAL HD 86 – Jose 17, Perkins 13, Villarias 13, Sumalinog 12, Arboleda 6, Bringas 6, Cahilig 6, Raymundo 5, Batino 4, Sara 4, Apinan 0, Uyloan 0.MARINERONG PILIPINO 67 – Javelona 11, Sargent 8, Subido 8, Moralde 7, Herndon 6, Lopez 6, Iñigo 5, Marata 5, Alabanza 3, Isip 3, Javillonar 3, Gabriel 2.Quarters: 34-14, 48-29, 65-45, 86-67.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES MOST READ Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ NATO’s aging eye in the sky to get a last overhaul Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Gamescenter_img Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo Trump signs bills in support of Hong Kong protesters Lyceum escapes EAC for 7th straight win But as always, the Skippers woke up from their slumber late and made a huge push in the fourth period, cutting the deficit to as low as 12, 75-63, after a Julian Sargent bucket.Unfortunately, the Skippers’ late-game magic was no match for Cignal’s end game poise, with Jose, Sumalinog, and Villarias icing the game down the stretch.The Hawkeyes can close the deal out on Tuesday for Game 2, still at Ynares Sports Arena.Pao Javelona paced Marinerong Pilipino with 11 points, while Sargent and Renzo Subido both got eight markers apiece as they saw the end of the Skippers’ seven-game winning run.The Scores:ADVERTISEMENT Celebrity chef Gary Rhodes dies at 59 with wife by his side DILG, PNP back suspension of classes during SEA Games NGCP on security risk: Chinese just technical advisers View commentslast_img read more